Aug 11

USS Skate (SSN-578) Becomes the First Submarine to Surface at the North Pole

Thursday, August 11, 2011 12:01 AM

USS Skate (SSN-578) made submarine history on 11 August 1958 when it became the first submarine to surface at the North Pole.

USS Skate (SSN-578) hung below the Arctic ice like a matchstick suspended an inch from the ceiling of a large room. A knot of sailors in the control room stared intently at an instrument inscribing patterns of parallel lines on a rolling paper tape. The pattern looked like an upside down mountain range.

“Heavy ice, ten feet,” said one of the sailors.

Suddenly the lines converged into a single narrow bar. “Clear water!” the sailor called out.

Commander James Calvert, the skipper, studied the marks on the paper closely. He stopped the submarine, ordered “up periscope,” and peered into the eyepiece. The clarity of the water and the amount of light startled him. At this same depth in the Atlantic—180 feet—the water was black or dark green at best, but here in the Arctic, it was pale blue like the tropical waters off the Bahamas. The crew laughed nervously as Calvert reported seeing nothing but a jellyfish.

Calvert turned toward the man in charge of the ice-detecting instrument. “How does it look?” The sailor flashed him the okay sign.

“Bring her up slowly,” Calvert said. The three-thousand ton sub began drifting upward like a giant balloon. The diving officer called the depth as the Skate rose.

Otherwise the room was deathly quiet. A wrong move or a miscalculation would endanger the mission or even the ship. Calvert continued to peer through the eyepiece. When the top of the periscope came within sixty feet of the surface, he spotted heavy ice to the side. He flipped the prism to look straight up, but saw nothing except the same blurred aquamarine. Sweat appeared on his forehead as he felt all eyes in the control room bear down upon him. If the sub rose too slowly, it could drift away from the opening. If it rose too quickly and struck ice, the collision could tear open the pressure hull and send the sub and all ninety men on board to the bottom.

Calvert, one of the most decorated naval officers of World War II, had survived eight war patrols in the submarine Jack and later became the third naval officer selected by Admiral Hyman Rickover to command a nuclear powered submarine. It was one of the Navy’s most demanding jobs, for it required the intellect and the courage to operate the Navy’s most sophisticated and dangerous propulsion system. This success of this mission would help Navy planners determine whether submarines could navigate safely under Arctic ice, a question with grave implications for national security, given the emerging Soviet submarine threat.

Calvert ordered the ballast tanks blown. The roar of high pressure air seemed earsplitting after the tense silence of the last few minutes. Upon surfacing, Calvert ordered the hatch opened, then climbed up to the bridge. The sky was slightly overcast and the damp air felt like an unseasonably warm February day in New England, with the temperature hovering near freezing. The submarine’s black hull stood out in stark relief against the deep blue of the calm lake in which the ship now floated. Beyond the lake, stretching to the horizon in every direction, was the stark white of the permanent polar ice pack. The officer who had climbed to the bridge with Calvert called the skipper’s attention to the port side of the ship. There a full grown polar bear was climbing slowly out of the water and up onto the ice.

The date was 11 August 1958 and the Skate had just become the first submarine to surface at the North Pole.

 
 
 
  • Graham P Davis

    USS Skate did indeed surface at the North Pole but not until 17 March 1959. Ice conditions in August 1958 were too heavy at the Pole for the Skate to surface, as they were for the Nautilus some days earlier. The Skate did surface in several other leads and polynya that August, including one near Ice-station Alfa. The above picture may have been from one of those.

    When the Skate sailed for the Arctic the following year, the sail had been strengthened to allow it to break through thin ice. At the Pole, they eventually found a small, refrozen lead, or skylight, and managed to break through it. Later, many of the crew gathered for a service at which the ashes of Sir Hubert Wilkins were sprinkled in the wind. The temperature during this service was -26F (-32C).

  • Rich Dommer

    Graham,

    You are mistaken. The USS Skate did indeed surface near the north pole on August 11, 1959 at 9:47 PM EDT and radioed the news back to New London.

  • LT Alex King, USN (Retired)

    I concur, it was indeed March 17, 1959, when I was a Navy RM2 in my enlisted days, in contact with the Skate from HICOMM at the Pentagon. For more on this and confirmation, see AUSN Navy magazine, June/July 2012 issue. For the record, please note that my name has since been legally changed.

  • J Doug Swallow

    jdouglashuahin Says:
    June 21, 2012 at 12:16 pm
     
    I am called a liar when I post what is below to a far left, anthropogenic global warming blog and wonder why.
     
    “The USS Skate (SSN-578) made submarine history on 11 August 1958 when it became the first submarine to surface at the North Pole.
    The officer who had climbed to the bridge with Calvert called the skipper’s attention to the port side of the ship. There a full grown polar bear was climbing slowly out of the water and up onto the ice.
    The date was 11 August 1958 and the Skate had just become the first submarine to surface at the North Pole.”
    http://www.navalhistory.org/2011/08/11/uss-skate-ssn-578-becomes-the-first-submarine-to-surface-at-the-north-pole/

    http://climatecrocks.com/2012/06/20/nsidc-arctic-ice-tracking-at-record-low-levels/comment-page-1/#comment-11045

  • CRAMER D BACQUE

    ONE OF THE IMPORTANT EQUIPMENTS INSTALLED ON SKATE FOR THE WINTER TRIP TO THE ARCTIC WAS A HIGH DEF LOW LIGHT LEVEL TV,I KNOW AS I INSTALLED AND OPERATED THE SET FOR THE ENTIRE TRIP.IWAS A BENDIX FIELD ENGINEER.THE TV ENABLED THE CAPTAIN TO VIEW THE ICE AND SAIL WHEN SURFACING>THE INFORMATION FROM THE NEL ICE MACHINE PLUS THE TV PROVIDED A
    CONFIDENCE FACTOR WHEN SMASHING THROUGH THE ICE.

  • Michael Ketterer

    read this,

    http://tinyurl.com/Skate90DegNorth

    and fix your errors.

  • ET2(SS) Nuc RO

    Some say Skate was too far from the pole to make the claim, and that’s why Skate when back in 1959. Others, including part of a book written by the skipper at the time, say that Skate went back in 1959 to prove the operational capability, of submarines under ice, in the winter. The ’58 surfacing was in August, the ’59, in March. It is not clear that Skate was significantly off of the actual pole in ’58. How close is “close enough”?
    If your point was to refute the alarmist claims that IPCC eco-tourists, aboard the Yamal, like Dr. McCarthy, in Aug2000, were the first humans to ever see the pole “ice free” – the NYTimes says it was open water about a mile wide (the polynya or lead), then you’re beating a dead horse. The NYTimes, undoubtedly fed by the IPCC PhDs aboard, said the pole (itself) had not been open water (even that polynya) for 50 million years… Skate was there in ’58, in a lead or polynya, Skate and Seadragon in 1962, in a polynya, Billfish, Seadevil, and the Brit’s HMS Superb, in a polynya – all those occasions, they surfaced at the pole in ice-free water, documented by photographs. Yeah, they didn’t have GPS, but they were ‘right in the pickle barrel’ The IPCC idiots, on another publicity stunt, just eight years after the Yamal cruise, published that Dr David Barber predicted that the pole might be ice free for “the first time in history” – so if the IPCC PhDs of 2008, Barber et al, can blatantly ignore the IPCC PhDs of 2000, McCarthy et al, what good will it do, to show them photos of all those Naval Nuclear Submarines, in open water, at the pole? That would be beating the dead horse. Why argue over Skate’s ’58, in the context of the pole being awash in unfrozen water, when there are at least two more, fully documented, photographed, declassified and published events?

  • ET2(SS) Nuc RO

    Terse, pretty brutal. Reading the pages you reference, the skipper plainly says they surfaced in ’58 and ’59, the former a bit farther away than that latter. He says the Skate went back in 59 to prove the operational capability (surfacing in winter 59 and in summer 58), with an off-hand, non-specific reference to not being as close to the pole as was desired. I’d say he has no errors to fix.

  • John Swallow

    ET2(SS)
    Nuc RO: Thanks for your reply and I did not even remember posting here two
    years ago but obviously the issue has come up again and what better place to
    get the facts of the matter than at the Navy’s own site?

    You
    said: “The IPCC idiots, on another
    publicity stunt, just eight years after the Yamal cruise, published that Dr
    David Barber predicted that the pole might be ice free for “the first time
    in history”…. ”

    Could
    this below, from their mandate, be the reason that this group of charlatans
    feel that they are justified when they prevaricate about the climate?

    1. “Scope and
    Approach of the Assessment 1.1. Mandate of the Assessment

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
    was established by World Meteorological Organization and United Nations
    Environmental Programme (UNEP) in 1988 to assess scientific, technical, and
    socioeconomic information that is relevant in understanding human-induced
    climate change, its potential impacts, and options for mitigation and
    adaptation.”

    http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/tar/wg2/index.php?idp=22

  • Jerry Okel

    5 radio positions manned at Kamiseya listening for 4 days. It was my understanding that a CT waiting for his security clearance copied the message first. Just a call sign as I recall