May 28th, 1980
First women graduate from USNA
In October, 1975, President Gerald Ford signed a bill which included a mandate stating that the United States’ military academies were to begin admitting women in the fall of 1976. This full integration of the sevice academies required much forethought and preparation to ensure that female students would have the same experiences and opportunities as their male counterparts, but it was a landmark acheivement for women in the services. In April 1976, Proceedings incleded a special news release from the U. S. Naval Academy which detailed the many changes and considerations which had been made in anticipation of the incoming female midshipmen. The article also offered a view of what the lives of these female midshipmen would be like, from the extracurricular activities they would participate in to their living arrangements in Bancroft Hall, and even included a description of their uniforms and dress codes. Most importantly, the article noted the high hopes and expectations for these women midshipmen, which the fifty-five female graduates of the class of 1980 surely met.
As the U. S. service academies enter the country’s bicentennial year, they will end more than a century of male-only admission policies. In the summer of ’76, the U. S. Naval, Military, and Air Force academies will admit women as midshipmen and cadets.
The academies were ordered open to young women when, on 8 October of last year, President Ford signed a military authorization bill with a rider directing the admission of women to the service academies. The new law states:
” . .. the secretaries of the military departments concerned shall take such action as may be necessary and appropriate to insure that (1) female individuals shall be eligible for appointment and admission to the service academy concerned, beginning with appointment to such academy for the class beginning in the calendar year 1976, and (2) the academic and other relevant standards required for appointment, admissions, training, graduation, commissioning of female individuals shall be the same as those required for male individuals, except for those minimum essential adjustments in such standards required because of physiological differences between male and female individuals.”
Academy officials had followed closely the progress of the bill and had been quietly developing plans for the admission of women for some months. On 9 October, Naval Academy Superintendent Rear Admiral Kinnaird R. McKee announced that women would enter Annapolis with the Class of 1980.
The task of preparing and executing the academy’s plan for women was delegated to the Commandant of Midshipmen. The offices of the commandant, academic dean, dean of admissions, candidate guidance, physical education, public works, and public affairs also have had principal roles. Academy planners have drawn from the experiences of the Merchant Marine Academy, which admitted women three years ago, and have consulted with officials from formerly all-male colleges and other service academies.
Admiral McKee has said that the admission of women will not change the academy’s mission of training midshipmen to be professional officers in the naval service. However, women midshipmen will not be able to use their combat training because of the wording of the U. S. Code Title 10. The code states that:
“… women may not be assigned to duty in aircraft that are engaged in combat missions nor can they be assigned to duty on vessels of the Navy other than hospital ships and transports. “
Within the framework of these statutes, the Naval Academy will minimize distinctions between the training and accommodations for men and women midshipmen. The changes that will be made will deal mainly with privacy in Bancroft Hall living areas, uniforms, and the summer cruise training period.
While academy officials are determined not to have “special” programs for women, they acknowledge the need to make allowances for physiological differences as required by the legislation. Where necessary, actions bearing on the accession of women will be included in indoctrination given to the brigade officers and midshipmen who will put the plebes of the Class of ’80 through summer training.
Explains Captain William J. Holland, who is coordinating plans for the admission of women, “We’ll tell the midshipmen in the plebe detail about everything from women’s uniforms to physiological differences and communications barriers that could cause problems in the plebe training. For instance, we expect that the women will be highly competitive. If they become exhausted they might not want to tell their squad leader about it. Studies show that women do not have the same physical endurance capacity that men do. They will be working closer to their exhaustion levels than the men. We want to alert the midshipmen to this.”
Holland says there has been no survey of midshipmen to determine their feelings about women joining them in Bancroft Hall, but he estimates that probably 10% of the brigade does not want women and probably will not change its mind after the women have settled in. He says a bigger problem than that 10% will be the possible chivalry of the other 90%.
Says Holland, “Studies also show that when a small number of women join a much larger group of men, the men tend to become chivalrous and protective. We will have to work against that. The women rate the same midshipman experience that the men get, and they can’t get it if they are protected. The men must criticize properly. At the same time the women will have to learn to be straightforward with the men.”
Other details for the women’s arrival are being worked out at Annapolis. The number of women admitted to the academy was determined by the Secretary of the Navy based on the number of women needed in the Navy and Marine Corps and taking into account the normal attrition rate of midshipmen. The secretary designated 80 spaces for women in the Class of 1980.
Women will compete for nomination within existing procedures, and all avenues of nomination will be open to them. Some women will enter Annapolis this summer from the Naval Academy Preparatory School (NAPS). They are women presently on active duty in the fleet or in the Naval or Marine Corps Reserve. They began at NAPS in January.
The women will live in Bancroft Hall, integrated into the company areas. Three women initially will share one room in a company area. Seventeen existing head facilities are being altered for the women in Bancroft Hall Showers and sinks are already in each midshipman room. Other physical revisions include construction of changing and shower facilities in Halsey Field House, Macdonough Hall, and Hubbard Hall.
Women will be addressed as “Midshipman,” since that term is a rank in the Navy rather than a description. Their uniforms, like the men’s, have been designed for maximum carryover potential. Several of them, such as the service dress blue, can be worn as officer uniforms after graduation. Other uniforms, such as classroom uniforms and full dress blues for parades, will be identical, except for hats, to the men’s.
Stringent hair standards will be set for the women. They will wear their hair so that when it is brushed out it does not touch the collars of their uniforms and so that after intense physical activity it can be rearranged easily and quickly.
Though there will be women officers on the commandant’s staff, no women will be assigned as company officers since those billets call for warfare specialists. Women officers will work with the plebe detail.
Women will be eligible for membership in all extracurricular activities except as players in the rugby and ice hockey clubs.
No changes will be made in the academic program because of the admission of women. Women applicants will be informed that the academy’s curriculum is heavily engineering-oriented, and they will select their majors on the same basis as men in the 80-20 engineering/science to humanities ratio. The number of women on the faculty will not be increased merely to accommodate the addition of women to the brigade. The best available faculty members are hired, and currently there are 16 women on the faculty.
Women will graduate as line officers in the Navy and Marine Corps and will be assigned to non-combatant billets. As midshipmen they will take the same professional courses as men. Summer cruise training has not yet been defined because of the law forbidding women to be assigned to combat ships. Since women cannot go to sea on Navy ships, they may be assigned to operational staffs for their third and first class summers. During the summer after third class year, women will participate in the program with the men, taking part in flight, submarine, Marine Corps, and surface warfare training.
Studies show that men and women differ physiologically in endurance and upper body strength areas. Therefore, it is anticipated that some standards in the women’s physical aptitude requirements may be different from the men’s. Women will take the same number of physical education courses as the men. In place of the men’s required boxing and wrestling classes, women will have a required personal defense course that will include judo, karate, and physical conditioning.
Women will be required to compete in intramural and varsity sports with the men. All athletics but the contact sports of football, lacrosse, wrestling, rugby, and boxing will be open to the women, and they will be encouraged to compete at the highest levels of their abilities.
As the arrival of the Class of 1980 approaches, Naval Academy officials are making every effort to ensure that the accession of women proceeds smoothly and profitably for the Naval Academy community as well as for members of the new class. Changes to living and athletic facilities are near completion, and officers and upperclass midshipmen have been appropriately briefed. A number of highly qualified candidates have been appointed from among the women nominated, and academy officials are confident that the program can be managed within the spirit as well as the letter of the congressional mandate.