Archive for the 'International' Category
April 15th, 1912
The sinking of the S. S. Titanic
April 15th, 2012, marks the one-hundred year anniversary of the sinking of the “unsinkable” S. S. Titanic after a collision with an iceberg. The tragedy of the Titanic was not that such a large and well-built ship sank on her first and only voyage, but that she lacked sufficient life-saving equipment, which resulted in the unnecessary loss of many lives. In observance of the fiftieth anniversary of the Titanic disaster, the April 1962 issue of Proceedings contained an article, written by John Carroll Carrothers, which detailed the Titanic‘s brief history, from the beginning of her first voyage to her final moments. Carrothers’ article, reprinted below, noted the many factors which could have prevented the loss of so many lives, and perhaps even the sinking of the ship.
The 50th anniversary of the world’s greatest and most tragic peacetime disaster at sea—the sinking of the S.S. Titanic on her maiden voyage—will be observed on 15 April 1962. Read the rest of this entry »
April 4th, 1949
NATO is established
In the wake of World War II, and at the beginnings of the Cold War, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was founded between the United States, Canada, and a large number of European nations. Ten years after the establishment of NATO, Proceedings published an article by Admiral W. F. Boone, USN, in its April 1959 issue. The article focused on the objectives of NATO as well as the acheivements and challenges encountered during the first ten years of its existence. Though establishing such an international union, especially in a time of peace, proved to be challenging for every member, the article, excerpted below, demonstrates that NATO, overall, has proven to be a success in preventing another global war.
NATO is the keystone of the supporting arch of United States foreign policy. Read the rest of this entry »
Okinawa declared secure after the most costly Naval Campaign in history. U.S. had 30 ships sunk, 233 damaged (mostly from Kamikaze attacks), 5000 dead & 5000 wounded.
In November 1957, Proceedings published an article by Commander J. Davis Scott of the U.S. Naval Reserve, about a rescued aviator’s extraordinary experience aboard a destroyer during an attack by Japanese planes. The article, which was written on the USS Bennington while it was a member of Task Force 58 off Okinawa, is prefaced with the following note:
For more than ten years this has been an untold story. Written aboard the USS Bennington (CV-20)—a member of Task Force 58—during the weeks when the Bennington was a vital part of the “Fleet That Came to Stay” off Okinawa in 1945, the article was withheld from publication by Commander-in-Chief Pacific Ocean Area because it told too much about the success of the dreaded Japanese kamikaze. It has now been released by the Department of Defense. Few personal tales in World War II can compare with that experienced by Marine Lieutenant Junie B. Lohan during the height of the kamikaze attacks. Read the rest of this entry »
Sailors and Marines from USS Newark and USS Oregon arrive at Peking (Beijing), China with other Sailors and Marines from Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, Italy and Japan to protect U.S. and foreign diplomatic legations from the Boxers. The Boxers, or Righteous Harmony Society, was a proto-nationalist movement that rose up in China between 1898 and 1901, opposing Western imperialism and Christianity.
The following is an excerpt from the article Experiences during the Boxer Rebellion by Captain J.K. Taussig USN published in Proceedings April, 1927.
The Boxers, it should be understood, were a patriotic organization formed for the express purpose of driving all foreigners out of China. It was their superstitious belief that the presence of the foreigners was the casue of the long protracted drought. Throughout the native city of Tientsin(Tianjin), with it’s million of densely packed Chinese, flaring posters were pasted calling on the populace to arise. A translation of one of these typical maniacal effusions is here given as a fair sample of their general character:
Sacred Edict Issued by the Lord of Wealth and Happiness
The Catholic and Protestant religions being insolent to the gods and extinguishing sanctity, rendering no obedience to Buddhism and enraging both heaven and earth, the rain clouds now no longer visit us; but eight million spirit soldiers will descend from heaven and sweep the empire clear of all foreigners. Then will the gentle showers once more water our land; and when the tread of soldiers and the clash of steel are heard, heralding woes to all our people, then the Buddhist Patriotic League of Boxers will be able to protect the Empire and bring peace to all its people.
Hasten then to spread the doctrine far and wide; for if you gain one adherent to the faith, your own person will be absolved from all misfortunes; if you gain five adherents to the faith, your whole family will be absolved from all evils; and if you gain ten adherents to the faith, your whole village will be absolved from all calamities. Those who gain no adherents to the cause will be decapitated; for until all foreigners have been exterminated the rain can never visit us.
Those who have been so unfortunate as to have drunk water from the wells poisoned by foreigners should at once make use of the following divine prescription…
A U.S. Exploring Expedition was authorized to conduct exploration of Pacific Ocean and South Seas. This was the first major scientific expedition overseas by the United States. LT Charles Wilkes USN, led the expedition in surveying South America, Antarctica, Far East, and North Pacific.
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This 2012, Operation Sail and the US. Navy will once again bring the glory of tall ships to the American seaboard to celebrate the bicentennial of our national anthem, The Star-Spangled Banner.
A parade of magnificent tall ships and warships, from over 25 nations, will sail to five historic ports: New Orleans, Norfolk, Boston, Baltimore, and New York City and join America in commemoration of this national milestone.
Operation Sail, (OpSail), a national non-profit organization dedicated to promoting goodwill among nations, and the development of youth through sail training, was conceived in 1961 by Frank Braynard and Nils Hansell. Following the endorsement of President John F. Kennedy, OpSail came to life in 1964 by successfully bringing the remaining tall ships of the world to New York City in conjunction with the 64’ World’s Fair.
Since then, OpSail events have taken place in 1976 for the Bicentennial, 1986 for Lady Liberties 100th, 1992 for the Columbus 500th, and 2000 for the Millennium—and each event has been larger than the last.